Brewing an innovative culture / Menyemai Budaya Inovatif

The ancient Greeks’ passion for the scientific rationale of the physical world could be dated back to as far as 600 BC. Although the Babylonians created maps before they did, it was Anaximandar, a Greek, who employed astronomy and geography in them. With this the Greeks pioneered cartography – the science of drawing maps.

They produced many great philosophers like Aristotle, the teacher of Alexander the Great. Deemed as father of logic, his over 150 works covered many scientific subjects such as biology, physics, metaphysics. He supported the idea of the Earth being a sphere rather and was also known as Father of Zoology.

The Greeks challenged the accuracy of the value of Pi, then 3, and established the basis of geometry. Geometric techniques have been long applied by other civilisations, but the scientific acumen of Greeks contributed to the deductive reasoning of those techniques. Thales of Miletus, respected as Father of Geometry, Pythagoras and Archimedes are several giants who altered the perception of mankind towards geometry.

Several other ancient Greek innovations that are still applicable today are the alarm clock, water mill, showers operated with a plumbing system, not forgetting the Olympics and concept of democracy.

They were also the earliest practitioners of medicine. They busted the ancient world’s superstitious beliefs that diseases were the wrath of gods. Physicians like Hippocrates focused on evidence instead. They made observations of signs and symptoms and recorded them. They used data collected from such observations and experiments to prove that diseases were a natural, biological process.

Their scientific minds led to the advancement of medicine and public health, saving millions of lives thereafter.

Fast forward to recent centuries, medical scientists around the globe have been putting their blood, sweat and tears in finding out the cause of sickness so that we can live a better and long life. Barry Marshall for example, debunked that stomach ulcers were caused by stress.

Although the Australian physician along with his collaborator, Robin Warren, discovered that the gut could be infected by a type of bacteria called H. pylori, they were unable to make their case with lab mice as this bacterium only affects primates. In 1984 a desperate Marshall then ran the experiment on himself by drinking H. pylori broth. He developed gastritis and the biopsy of his own gut proved that these bacteria were the underlying cause of most stomach ulcers.

In fact the cure was readily available – antibiotics. Marshall said that almost the entire world population has this bacterium in their bodies, but not all develop symptoms. I was one of the less fortunate ones who experienced the symptoms and was constantly suffering from pain in the stomach when I was a school boy.

Thanks to scientists like Marshall and Warren who believed in evidence-based diagnosis,  we now know that a simple antibiotic treatment would cure us, and no longer have to bear the pain or even have our stomachs removed.

I am very pleased that they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2005 for their discovery of “the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”.

So the scientific and technological culture such as in the case of ancient Greek civilisation, existed long before the First Industrial Revolution in the late 1700s. Nearing the First Industrial Revolution, the flourish of guilds of merchants and artisans laid the basis for wealth creation and employment.

The development of machines powered by steam and novel manufacturing processes in chemicals and iron promoted these pioneering small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to considerable enterprises. Malaysians would recall that the British and Dutch colonisations were initiated through the British East India Company and the Dutch East India Company.

Therefore the technological and innovative culture took centuries to develop in Europe. But the Japanese during the Meiji Restoration in 1868 learnt from the West. They applied Western technology in domestically manufactured items to sell them affordably to international consumers.

Within five decades, the demand for coal for steamships and railroads in Japan rose sharply, and they leapfrogged from a feudal agricultural economy to a highly industrialised one.

In China, after the demise of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping implemented the Four Modernisations plan to advance the fields of science and technology, agriculture, industry and national defence.

Although the Chinese leaders accepted the concept of modernisation through science and technology, they knew they had to access the global community for advancement. They opened China’s economy to foreign investments and learn from the West and Japan, officially marking the beginning of reform for the Chinese.

In Malaysia since independence, our government policy of investing heavily in the research and development (R&D) of top industries has allowed the private sector to be the engine of growth. We are leading in rubber, palm oil and timber R&D and export.

In 1980s “Made in Malaysia” microchips on computer motherboards were ubiquitous, proving our innovative capabilities in Electrical and Electronics (E&E). E&E continues to be one of our National Key Economic Areas today. We are also leading in the R&D of the halal industry.

We are on the brink of achieving a developed nation status without a pronounced scientific, technological and innovative culture. As we continue to invest in scientific research, we would also need to re-orientate our science, technology, engineering and mathematics education (STEM).

STEM education was the focus of discussion during the National Science Council meeting last Tuesday. It was chaired by Prime Minister, attended by Ministers from relevant Ministries and captains of the industry. The topic of STEM is not novel among policymakers, but this time it is a national level, concerted effort led by our Prime Minister to advocate STEM learning.

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At the National Science Council on 2/5/2017.

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In our roadmap of the coming 30 years towards 2050, we want to produce a generation of innovative thinkers. Scientific and inquisitive minds in this digital era can be nurtured by STEM savvy educators and aided by the Internet, as demonstrated by many young successful innovators such as Ben Pasternak, who was 16 years old when he became a tech tycoon.


Menyemai Budaya Inovatif

Keghairahan masyarakat Yunani purba mendapatkan pewajaran saintifik tentang dunia fizikal boleh disusuri hingga ke tahun 600 SM. Walaupun masyarakat Babylon yang mencipta peta, namun seorang Yunani bernama Anaximandar telah menerapkan ilmu astronomi dan geografi dalam peta itu. Justeru, orang Yunani yang mempelopori kartografi – ilmu lukis peta.

Mereka melahirkan ramai ahli falsafah agung seperti Aristotle, guru kepada Iskandar Agung. Dianggap sebagai bapa ilmu logik, hasil karyanya yang melebihi 150 buah meliputi banyak subjek saintifik seperti biologi, fizik dan metafizik. Beliau menyokong idea bahawa Bumi berbentuk sfera. Beliau juga dikenali sebagai Bapa Zoologi.

Masyarakat Yunani mencabar ketepatan nilai Pi, kemudiannya angka 3, dan membina asas geometri. Teknik geometri telah lama diguna pakai oleh tamadun lain, tetapi kepintaran masyarakat Yunani dalam sains menyumbang kepada taakulan deduktif teknik itu. Thales dari Miletus, dianggap sebagai Bapa Geometri, manakala Pythagoras dan Archimedes merupakan antara tokoh besar yang mengubah persepsi manusia terhadap geometri.

Beberapa inovasi lain Yunani purba yang masih boleh diguna pakai hari ini ialah jam loceng, kincir air, pancuran yang menggunakan sistem paip, dan tidak dilupakan sukan Olimpik dan konsep demokrasi.

Mereka juga merupakan pengamal perubatan yang terawal. Mereka menghapuskan kepercayaan karut dunia purba yang mempercayai penyakit disebabkan oleh sumpahan dewa. Sebaliknya, pakar perubatan seperti Hippocrates memberikan tumpuan pada bukti. Mereka membuat pemerhatian terhadap tanda dan gejala lalu mencatatnya. Mereka menggunakan data yang terkumpul daripada pemerhatian dan uji kaji itu untuk membuktikan bahawa penyakit adalah proses biologi semula jadi.

Pemikiran saintifik mereka membawa kepada kemajuan perubatan dan kesihatan awam, yang telah menyelamatkan jutaan nyawa.

Beralih ke abad baru-baru ini, ahli sains perubatan di seluruh dunia telah berusaha bertungkus-lumus mencari punca penyakit agar kita boleh jalani kehidupan yang lebih baik dan lama. Barry Marshall contohnya telah menyangkal bahawa ulser perut disebabkan oleh tekanan.

Walaupun pakar perubatan Australia itu bersama-sama dengan rakan usaha samanya, Robin Warren, mendapati bahawa perut boleh dijangkiti sejenis bakteria yang dikenali sebagai H.pylori, mereka tidak boleh membuktikan hujah mereka dengan menggunakan tikus makmal kerana bakteria ini hanya memberikan kesan kepada primat. Pada 1984, Marshall yang terdesak telah menjalankan uji kaji itu pada dirinya sendiri dengan meminum air rebusan H.pylori. Beliau mengalami gastritis, dan biopsi perutnya membuktikan bahawa bakteria ini merupakan penyebab utama kebanyakan ulser perut.

Malah, ubatnya sudah tersedia iaitu antibiotik. Menurut Marshal, hampir semua penduduk dunia mempunyai bakteria ini dalam tubuh mereka, tetapi tidak semua menunjukkan gejala. Saya antara orang yang kurang bernasib baik dan sering mengalami kesakitan di perut semasa zaman kanak-kanak.

Atas jasa ahli sains seperti Marshall dan Warren yang meyakini diagnosis berasaskan bukti, kita kini tahu bahawa rawatan antibiotik yang mudah boleh menyembuhkan, dan kita tidak perlu lagi menahan sakit atau membuang perut kita.

Saya amat gembira apabila mengetahui mereka dianugerahkan Hadiah Nobel dalam Fisiologi atau Perubatan pada 2005 bagi penemuan “bakteria Helicobacter pylori dan kesannya kepada gastritis dan penyakit ulser peptik”.

Jelas bahawa budaya sains dan teknologi seperti kes tamadun Yunani purba, telah wujud lebih lama sebelum Revolusi Perindustrian Pertama pada lewat abad ke-18. Menjelang Revolusi Perindustrian Pertama, perkembangan perseikatan antara saudagar dengan tukang telah menyediakan asas untuk penjanaan kekayaan dan peluang pekerjaan.

Kemajuan jentera yang dikuasakan oleh stim dan proses pembuatan baharu dalam bahan kimia dan besi telah meningkatkan perusahaan kecil dan sederhana (PKS) kepada perusahaan besar. Kita tentunya masih ingat bahawa penjajahan Inggeris dan Belanda bermula dengan Syarikat Hindia Timur Inggeris dan Syarikat Hindia Timur Belanda.

Justeru, budaya teknologi dan inovasi memakan masa berabad untuk maju di Eropah. Akan tetapi, Jepun telah mempelajarinya daripada pihak Eropah pada zaman Pemulihan Meiji pada 1868. Mereka mengguna pakai teknologi Barat dalam pengeluaran barangan secara domestik untuk dijual dengan murah kepada pengguna antarabangsa.

Dalam tempoh lima abad, permintaan arang batu untuk kapal wap dan jalan kereta api di Jepun meningkat dengan mendadak, dan mereka melonjak daripada ekonomi pertanian feudal kepada ekonomi industri tinggi.

Di China, selepas kematian Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping telah melaksanakan pelan Empat Pemodenan untuk memajukan bidang sains dan teknologi, pertanian, industri dan pertahanan negara.

Walaupun pemimpin China menerima konsep pemodenan melalui sains dan teknologi, mereka sedar bahawa mereka memerlukan akses kepada masyarakat global untuk tujuan kemajuan. Mereka membuka ekonomi China kepada pelaburan asing dan belajar daripada Barat dan Jepun, yang secara rasminya menandakan permulaan reformasi untuk rakyat China.

Di Malaysia sejak kemerdekaan, dasar kerajaan kita yang membuat pelaburan besar dalam penyelidikan dan pembangunan (R&D) industri utama telah menjadikan sektor swasta sebagai nadi pembangunan. Kita mendahului dalam R&D dan eksport getah, kelapa sawit dan balak.

Pada 1980-an, mikrocip “Buatan Malaysia” untuk papan induk komputer, membuktikan keupayaan inovatif kita dalam bidang Elektrik dan Elektronik (E&E). Malah, E&E terus menjadi antara Bidang Ekonomi Utama Negara pada hari ini. Kita juga menerajui R&D industri halal.

Kita berada di ambang mencapai status negara maju tanpa budaya saintifik, teknologi dan inovasi yang jelas. Di samping kita berterusan melabur dalam penyelidikan saintifik, kita juga perlu mengorientasikan semula pendidikan sains, teknologi, kejuruteraan dan matematik (STEM) kita.

Pendidikan STEM menjadi tumpuan perbincangan pada mesyuarat Majlis Sains Negara pada Selasa yang lalu. Mesyuarat yang dipengerusikan oleh Perdana Menteri dan dihadiri oleh menteri dari Kementerian yang berkaitan dan ketua industri. Topik mengenai STEM bukanlah asing dalam kalangan pembuat dasar, tetapi pada kali ini topik ini menjadi isu kebangsaan, suatu usaha bersepadu yang diketuai oleh Perdana Menteri untuk menyokong pembelajaran STEM.

Dalam hala tuju 30 tahun akan datang menuju 2050, kita mahu melahirkan generasi berpemikiran inovatif. Pemikiran saintifik dan ingin tahu dalam era digital ini boleh dipupuk oleh pendidik STEM yang benar-benar faham serta dibantu oleh Internet, seperti yang ditunjukkan oleh banyak pereka baharu dan muda yang berjaya. Menyemai budaya inovatif tidak pernah semudah dan menarik ini.

 

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